Length

The length is the most extended dimension of an object. Length may be distinguished from height, which is vertical extent, and width or breadth, which are the distance from side to side, measuring across the object at right angles to the length. Length is a measure of one dimension, whereas area is a measure of two dimensions (length squared) and volume is … Leggi tuttoLength

Rheology

Rheology is used to describe and assess the deformation and flow behavior of materials. Fluids flow at different speeds and solids can be deformed to a certain extent. Oil, honey, shampoo, hand cream, toothpaste, sweet jelly, plastic materials, wood, and metals – depending on their physical behavior, you can put them in order: On the … Leggi tuttoRheology

Sensor

A sensor is a device of a measuring system that detects and is directly affected by a phenomenon, body, or substance carrying a physical quantity to be measured. The specific input could be light, sound, heat, motion, moisture, magnetism, pressure, or any one of a great number of other environmental phenomena. The output is generally … Leggi tuttoSensor

Calibration

Calibration or instrument calibration is one of the primary processes used to maintain instrument accuracy. Is the operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation between the quantity values with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standards and corresponding indications with associated measurement uncertainties and, in a second step, uses this information to … Leggi tuttoCalibration

Acceleration

Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity. The units of measurements for acceleration can be implied from the definition to be meters/second divided by seconds, usually written \(m/s^2\). Acceleration is inherently a vector quantity, and an object will have non-zero acceleration if its speed and/or direction is changing. Average acceleration The average acceleration is given by: … Leggi tuttoAcceleration

Cells (biology)

A cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms that can replicate independently. Cells fall into one of two broad categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Only the predominantly single-celled organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea are classified as prokaryotes (pro- = “before”; -kary- = “nucleus”). Cells of animals, plants, fungi, and protists are all eukaryotes (ceu- … Leggi tuttoCells (biology)

Fraction

A fraction is a real number written as a quotient, or ratio, of two integers \(a\) and \(b\), where \(b\neq 0\). \[\dfrac{a}{b}\] The integer above the fraction bar \(a\) is called the numerator and the integer below \(b\) is called the denominator. The numerator is often called the “part” and the denominator is often called the “whole”. Equivalent fractions are two equal ratios expressed … Leggi tuttoFraction

Decimals

A decimal numeral, or just decimal, or, improperly decimal number, refers generally to the notation of a number in the decimal system, which contains a decimal separator: for example 3.14; the decimal separator is the dot “.” in many countries, but may be a comma “,” in other countries (mainly in Europe). The numbers that may be represented in the decimal system … Leggi tuttoDecimals